A Method for Optimizing Maintenance and Querying Ontology-based Linked Data

Naghmeh Sohrabian, Bita Shadgar


At present, emerged technologies such as Resource Description Framework (RDF) are used to describe information in the semantic web. RDF triples are the basic components of linked data, which build the whole structure of the semantic web.  Alongside the semantic web development, RDF data are also growing in scope and volume rapidly. As a result, the size of T-Boxes and also A-Boxes in linked data-related ontologies is undergoing a great change. The scale of ontology-based linked data requires efficient structures for storing and also querying on these data. This paper proposes a method based on relational databases for storing ontology-based linked data. This method achieves shorter query response time and more accuracy comparing other known RDF storage methods such as schema-oblivious, schema-aware and hybrid methods. To evaluate the results, DBpedia infobox ontology and dataset has been used.


Linked Data; Ontology; Relational Database; Resource Description Framework; Indexing

Full Text:



C. Bizer, F. Universitat, T. Heath, T. Berners-Lee, “Linked data - the story so far”, International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 1-22, 2009.

S. Auer, C. Bizer, G. Kobilarov, J. Lehmann, R. Cyganiak, Z. Ives, “DBpedia: a nucleus for a web of open data”, in The 6th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2007), Busan, Korea, November 2007.

M. d. M. Roldan-Garcia, J. F. Aldana-Montes, “A Survey on Disk Oriented Querying and Reasoning on the Semantic Web”, in The 22th IEEE ICDE Workshop SWDB, Atlanta, 2006.

D. Beckett, J. Grant, “SWAD-Europe Deliverable 10.2: Mapping Semantic Web Data with RDBMSes”, (last modified: 23 January 2003), [accessed: 11 April 2012], .

D. E. Spanos, P. Stavrou, N. Mitrou, “Bringing Relational Databases into the Semantic Web: A Survey”, Semantic Web, Vol. 0, No. 0, pp. 1-41, 2010.

I. Astrova, N. Korda, A. Kalja, “Storing OWL Ontologies in SQL Relational Databases”, in proceedings of the World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2007.

D. E. Spanos, P. Stavrou, N. Mitrou, “Bringing Relational Databases into the Semantic Web: A Survey”, Semantic Web, Vol. 0, No. 0, pp. 1-41, 2010.

C. J. Date, An Introduction to Database Systems, 8th edition, Addison Wesley , Boston, 2003.

W3C Incubator Group, “A survey of current approaches for mapping of Relational Databases to RDF”, (last modified: 8 January 2009), [accessed: 5 April 2012], .

A. Chebotko, S. Lu, X. Fei, F. Fotouhi, “RDFPROV: A relational RDF Store for querying and managing scientific workflow provenance”, Data & knowledge Engineering, Vol. 69, No. 1, pp. 836-865, 2010.

Y. Theoharis, V. Christophides, G. Karvounarakis, “Benchmarking Database Representation of RDF/S Stores”, in Proceedings of the 4th International Semantic Web Conference(ISWC2005), LNCS 3729, Galway, Ireland, 2005.

K. Wilkinson, C. Sayers, H. Kuno, D. Reynolds, “Efficient RDF Storage and retrieval in Jena2”, in the first International Workshop on Semantic Web and Databases, Berlin, Germany, 2003.

B. McBride, “Jena: Implementing the RDF Model and Syntax Specification”, in proceedings of the second international workshop on semantic web(semweb2001), Hong Kong, China, 2001.

J. Broekstra, A. Kampman, F. V. Harmelen, “Sesame: A Generic Architecture for Storing and Querying RDF and RDF Schema”, in Proceedings of the first International Semantic Web Conference(ISWC2002), Chia, Sardinia, Italy, June 2002.

T. Gabel, Y. Sure, J. Voelker, “KAON – An Overview: Karlsruhe Ontology Management Infrastructure”, University of Karlsruhe, 2004.

L. Ma, Z. Su, Y. Pan, L. Zhang, T. Liu, RStar: An RDF Storage and Query System for Enterprise Resource Management, In proceedings of the International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM), Washington, DC, USA, 2004.

O. Erling, Implementing a SPARQL compliant RDF triple store using a SQL-ORDBMS, Technical report, OpenLink Software Virtuoso, 2001, Available from http://virtuoso.openlinksw.com/wiki/main/Main/VOSRDFWP.

Z. Pan, J. Heflin, DLDB: Extending Relational Databases to Support Semantic Web Queries, In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Practical and Scalable Semantic Web Systems (PSSS), Sanibel Island, Florida, USA, 2003.

S. Narayanan, T. M. Kurc, and J. H. Saltz. DBOWL: towards extensional queries on a billion statements using relational databases. Technical Report OSUBMI_TR_2006_n03, Ohio State University, 2006. Available from http://bmi.osu.edu/resources/techreports/osubmi.tr.2006.n3.pdf.

K. Stoffel, M.G. Taylor, J.A. Hendler, Efficient Management of Very Large Ontologies, In proceedings of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Conference(AAAI), Palo Alto, California, 1997.

Lululemon Black Friday cheap nfl jerseys Lululemon factory Outlet ny Black Friday discount tiffany outlet wholesale soccer jerseys online oakley black friday cheap nhl jerseys china cheap nfl jerseys north face black friday sale cheap nfl jerseys online Jordans Black Friday Sale 2015 Cheap Moncler Cyber Monday moncler outlet cheap soccer jerseys moncler outlet black friday cheap authentic nfl jerseys north face cyber monday Louboutin Black Friday canada wholesale cheap nfl jerseys lululemon cyber monday 2015 cheap nfl jerseys from china 2015 Cheap Moncler Black Friday Sale Moncler Cyber Monday 2015 cheap jerseys Lululemon Cyber Monday Sale jordans cyber monday deals 2015 Black Friday deals Lululemon 2015 jordan black friday 2015 Moncler Jackets Black Friday Sale 2015 Louboutin Pas Cher Black Friday 2015 Canada Lululemon north face black friday cheap wholesale soccer jerseys